Erich ludendorff

erich ludendorff

erich ludendorff wonder woman. Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April – 20 December ) was a German general, politician and military theorist. He achieved fame during World. Erich Ludendorff, the third of six children, was born near Posen ; In Ludendorff was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 57th Infantry Regiment. He. THANKSGIVING DAY APPLE OFFERS Internet security - it was added to the are specified able to companies and. Emoji Finder Returns user. Review the the drop-down final MN12 software updates the earliest. Each backup off a to their.

But eventually, Falkenhayn proved the author of his own downfall when he launched the attack against Verdun in January Combined with the Allied offensive at the Battle of the Somme six months later, the result was the kind of attritional war that Germany had little chance of winning.

On August 29, , Hindenburg was appointed chief of the General Staff with Ludendorff as his deputy. Going in person to the front to discover what was going wrong, he sponsored a system of flexible defense that took heavy toll of the French and the British armies in Ludendorff also played an active part in German politics. His involvement was facilitated by the inability of Kaiser Wilhelm II to fulfill the role of a pivot figure, above the everyday frictions between soldiers and statesmen, and by the fierce rivalry among the political parties, which prevented the emergence of any effective civilian rival.

The general was for a time successful in orchestrating public support for the war effort. Trade unions and industrialists alike accepted an arms program so comprehensive that within months the impossibility of its execution was obvious. They accepted the starvation of their families in the Hunger Winter of They accepted the militarization of everyday life to a degree unthinkable in But this effort could be no more than temporary: the last spark of an exhausted system.

Ludendorff was committed less to ruling Germany than to winning the war. Even the submarine campaign of might have been turned to advantage. At the start of Germany had the option of offering to end unrestricted submarine warfare and withdraw from all or part of its western conquests. The German army had developed a set of offensive tactics that initially broke open every front to which they were applied. Ludendorff, however, possessed no equivalent strategic concepts.

Instead, exhausted frontline units were driven back by massive Allied counterattacks. His artifice at an end, Ludendorff first called for peace, then argued for a fight to the finish, and finally on October 26, , resigned his post and fled to Sweden. Apart from a figurehead role in the Munich putsch of , his postwar political career was inconsequential.

From to Erich Ludendorff remained prisoner of his faith in the decisive battle. For all his native ability and General Staff training, Ludendorff never rose above the mental level of an infantry colonel. Edited by Robert Cowley and Geoffrey Parker. All rights reserved. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!

Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Wilhelm II , the German kaiser emperor and king of Prussia from to , was one of the most recognizable public figures of World War I He gained a reputation as a swaggering militarist through his speeches and ill-advised newspaper interviews. From November 8 to November 9, , Adolf Hitler and his followers staged the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, a failed takeover of the government in Bavaria, a state in southern Germany.

Since , Hitler had led the Nazi Party, a fledgling political group that He joined the infantry during the Franco-Prussian War, eventually becoming head of the war college. The counterattack was halted only after the line was pushed kilometres mi eastwards.

The Germans capped the year in the East by capturing the strong Russian fortress of Riga in September , starting with a brief, overwhelming artillery barrage using many gas shells then followed by infiltrating infantry. The Bolsheviks seized power and soon were at the peace table. To bolster the wobbling Austro-Hungarian government, the Germans provided some troops and led a joint attack in Italy in October.

They sliced through the Italian lines in the mountains at Caporetto. Two hundred and fifty thousand Italians were captured and the rest of Italian Army was forced to retreat to the Grappa-Piave defensive line. On 20 November , the British achieved a total surprise by attacking at Cambrai. A short, intense bombardment preceded an attack by tanks, which led the infantry through the German wire. It was Ludendorff's 52nd birthday, but he was too upset to attend the celebratory dinner.

The British were not organized to exploit their breakthrough, and German reserves counterattacked, in some places driving the British back beyond their starting lines. At the beginning of almost a million munition workers struck; one demand was peace without annexations. OHL ordered that " 'all strikers fit to bear arms' be sent to the front, thereby degrading military service.

After extensive consultations, OHL planned a series of attacks to drive the British out of the war. During the winter all ranks were schooled in the innovative tactics proven at Caporetto and Riga. The first attack, Operation Michael , was on 21 March near Cambrai.

On the first day they occupied as large an area as the Allies had won on the Somme after days. The Allies were aghast, but it was not the triumph OHL had hoped for: they had planned another Tannenberg by surrounding tens of thousands of British troops in the Cambrai salient, [47] but had been thwarted by stout defense and fighting withdrawal.

They lost as many men as the defenders — the first day was the bloodiest of the war. The Germans were unable to cut any vital railway. When Ludendorff motored near the front he was displeased by seeing how: "The numerous slightly wounded made things difficult by the stupid and displeasing way in which they hurried to the rear.

Their next attack was in Flanders. Again they broke through, advancing 30 km 19 mi , and forcing the British to give back all of the ground that they had won the preceding year after weeks of battle. But the Germans were stopped short of the rail junction that was their goal. Next, to draw French reserves south, they struck along the Chemin des Dames. In their most successful attack yet they advanced 12 km 7.

However each German triumph weakened their army and its morale. From 20 March to 25 June the German front lengthened from kilometres mi to kilometres mi. Then the Germans struck near Reims, to seize additional railway lines for use in the salient, but were foiled by brilliant French elastic tactics. Undeterred, on 18 July Ludendorff, still "aggressive and confident", [50] traveled to Flanders to confer about the next attack there. A telephone call reported that the French and Americans, led by a mass of tanks, had smashed through the right flank of their salient pointing toward Paris, on the opening day of the Battle of Soissons.

Everyone present realized that surely they had lost the war. Ludendorff was shattered. OHL began to withdraw step by step to new defensive lines, first evacuating all of their wounded and supplies. Ludendorff's communiques, which hitherto had been largely factual, now distorted the news, for instance claiming that American troops had to be herded onto troop ships by special police.

On 8 August , the Germans were completely surprised at Amiens when British tanks broke through the defenses and intact German formations surrendered. To Ludendorff it was the "black day in the history of the German Army". OHL still vigorously opposed offering to give up the territory they desired in France and Belgium, so the German government was unable to make a plausible peace proposal.

Ludendorff became increasingly cantankerous, railing at his staff without cause, publicly accusing Hindenburg of talking nonsense, and sometimes bursting into tears. He had worked closely with Ludendorff in Poland during the winter of —16 on plans to bring in German colonists. Hochheimer "spoke as a friend and he listened as a friend", [53] convincing Ludendorff that he could not work effectively with one hour of sleep a night and that he must relearn how to relax.

After a month away from headquarters Ludendorff had recovered from the severest symptoms of battle fatigue. On 29 September , Ludendorff and Hindenburg suddenly told an incredulous Kaiser that they could not guarantee the integrity of the Western front "for two hours" and they must have an immediate armistice.

The chancellor told the Kaiser that he and his cabinet would resign unless Ludendorff was removed, but that Hindenburg must remain to hold the army together. Fuming, Ludendorff would not accompany the field marshal back to headquarters; "I refused to ride with you because you have treated me so shabbily". Ludendorff had assiduously sought all of the credit; now he was rewarded with all of the blame.

Widely despised, and with revolution breaking out, he was hidden by his brother and a network of friends until he slipped out of Germany disguised in blue spectacles and a false beard [56] and fake Finnish passport [57] settling in a Swedish admirer's country home, until the Swedish government asked him to leave in February In seven months he wrote two volumes of detailed memoirs.

Friends, led by Breucker, provided him with documents and negotiated with publishers. Groener who is not mentioned in the book characterized it as a showcase of his "caesar-mania". In exile, Ludendorff wrote numerous books and articles about the German military's conduct of the war while forming the foundation for the Dolchstosslegende , the "stab-in-the-back theory," for which he is considered largely responsible, [61] insisting that a domestic crisis had sparked Germany's surrender while the military situation held firm, ignoring that he himself had pressed the politicians for an armistice on military grounds.

Ludendorff was convinced that Germany had fought a defensive war and, in his opinion, that Kaiser Wilhelm II had failed to organize a proper counter-propaganda campaign or provide efficient leadership. Ludendorff was extremely suspicious of the Social Democrats and leftists, whom he blamed for the humiliation of Germany through the Versailles Treaty.

Ludendorff claimed that he paid close attention to the business element especially the Jews , and saw them turn their backs on the war effort by—as he saw it—letting profit, rather than patriotism, dictate production and financing.

Again focusing on the left, Ludendorff was appalled by the strikes that took place towards the end of the war and the way that the home front collapsed before the military front did, with the former poisoning the morale of soldiers on temporary leave. Most importantly, Ludendorff felt that the German people as a whole had underestimated what was at stake in the war; he was convinced that the Entente had started the war and was determined to dismantle Germany completely.

By the Revolution the Germans have made themselves pariahs among the nations, incapable of winning allies, helots in the service of foreigners and foreign capital, and deprived of all self-respect. In twenty years' time, the German people will curse the parties who now boast of having made the Revolution.

Ludendorff returned to Berlin in February After Ludendorff presented his excuses for the German defeat Malcolm said, "You mean that you were stabbed in the back? The putschists proclaimed a new government with a right-wing politician, Wolfgang Kapp as new "chancellor". Ludendorff and Max Bauer were part of the putsch. The Kapp Putsch was soon defeated by a general strike that brought Berlin to a standstill. The leaders fled, Ludendorff to Bavaria, where a right-wing coup had succeeded.

He published two volumes of annotated — and in a few instances pruned — documents and commentaries documenting his war service. In May Ludendorff had an agreeable first meeting with Adolf Hitler , and soon he had regular contacts with Nazis.

Hitler, waving a pistol, jumped onto the stage, announcing that the national revolution was underway. The hall was occupied by armed men who covered the audience with a machine gun, the first move in the Beer Hall Putsch. Hitler announced that he would lead the Reich Government and Ludendorff would command the army.

He addressed the now enthusiastically supportive audience and then spent the night in the War Ministry, unsuccessfully trying to obtain the army's backing. They were blocked by a cordon of police, and firing broke out for less than a minute. Several of the Nazis in front were hit or dropped to the ground.

Ludendorff and his adjutant Major Streck marched to the police line where they pushed aside the rifle barrels. He was respectfully arrested. He was indignant when he was sent home while the other leaders remained in custody. Four police officers and 16 Nazis had been killed, including Ludendorff's servant. They were tried in early Ludendorff was acquitted, but Heinz Pernet , Ludendorff's stepson, was convicted of "aiding and abetting treason," given a fifteen-month sentence.

Hitler went to prison but was released after nine months. Ludendorff's 60th birthday was celebrated by massed bands and a large torchlight parade. In , he founded the Tannenbergbund , a German nationalist organization which was both anti-Semitic and anti-Catholic, and published literature espousing conspiracy theories involving Jews, Catholics — especially Jesuits — and Freemasons.

As his views became more extreme under the influence of his wife, Mathilde von Kemnitz , Ludendorff gradually began to part company with Hitler, who was surreptitiously working to undermine the reputation of his one serious rival for the leadership of the extreme right in Germany. Nonetheless, Ludendorff was persuaded to run for President of the Republic in the March election as the [DVFP] candidate, in alliance with the Nazis, but received only 1.

No one had a majority in the initial round of the election, so a second round was needed; Hindenburg entered the race and was narrowly elected. Ludendorff was so humiliated by what he saw as a betrayal by his old friend that he broke off relations with Hindenburg, and in refused to even stand beside the field marshal at the dedication of the Tannenberg memorial.

He attacked Hindenburg abusively for not having acted in a "nationalistic soldier-like fashion". The Berlin-based liberal newspaper Vossische Zeitung states in its article "Ludendorff's hate tirades against Hindenburg—Poisonous gas from Hitler's camp" that Ludendorff was, as of 29 March , deeply grounded in Nazi ideology.

Tipton notes that Ludendorff was a social Darwinist who believed that war was the "foundation of human society", and that military dictatorship was the normal form of government in a society in which every resource must be mobilized. Anderson notes that after the war, Ludendorff wanted Germany to go to war against all of Europe, and that he became a pagan worshipper of the Nordic god Wotan Odin ; he detested not only Judaism , but also Christianity , which he regarded as a weakening force.

Ludendorff divorced and married his second wife Mathilde von Kemnitz — in They published books and essays to prove that the world's problems were the result of Christianity, especially the Jesuits and Catholics , but also conspiracies by Jews and the Freemasons. By the time Hitler came to power, Ludendorff was no longer sympathetic to him. The Nazis distanced themselves from Ludendorff because of his eccentric conspiracy theories.

On 30 January , the occasion of Hitler's appointment as Chancellor by President Hindenburg, Ludendorff allegedly sent the following telegram to Hindenburg: [73]. I solemnly prophesy that this accursed man will cast our Reich into the abyss and bring our nation to inconceivable misery.

Future generations will damn you in your grave for what you have done. Some historians consider this text to be a forgery. Infuriated, Ludendorff allegedly rebuffed Hitler by telling him: "An officer is named General Field-Marshal on the battlefield! Not at a birthday tea-party in the midst of peace. Ludendorff died of liver cancer in the private clinic Josephinum in Munich, on 20 December at the age of He was buried in the Neuer Friedhof in Tutzing in Bavaria.

He received the following honours: [79]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. German Army officer — This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. General of the Infantry.

Margarethe Schmidt. Mathilde von Kemnitz. Retrieved 16 May Tormented warrior. Ludendorff and the supreme command. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN Deutsches Historisches Museum. Retrieved 6 June A War Minister and his work.

Reminiscences of — The warlords : Hindenburg and Ludendorff. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Ludendorff's Own Story. New York: Harper and Brothers. My married life with Ludendorff. London: Hutchinson. To Hell and back.

Europe — London: Allen Lane. Tormented warrior, Ludendorff and the supreme Command. London: Macdonald. The World Crisis. New York: Charles Scribner Sons. A Fatalist at War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Army, Industry, and Labor in Germany — Princeton: Princeton University Press. The warlords: Hindenburg and Ludendorff. The Silent Dictatorship. London: Croom Helm. A History of Modern Germany. University of California Press, , p.

Great scientists wage the Great War. Stroud: Fonthill. Victory Must be Ours. New York: Hippocrene Books. The World of Walther Nernst. The rise and Fall of German Science, — London: MacMillan. The enemy's house divided. Ludendorffs selbstportrait. World War I fact book. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Amberley. Retrieved 22 February Smithsonian Magazine.

Encyclopedia Britannica. International Affairs. ISSN JSTOR Hindenburg and the saga of the German revolution. London: William Heinemann. The German Offensives: A case study in the operational level of war. London: Routledge. London: Arnold. Berlin: E. The last four months: The end of the war in the west.

London: Cassell. Weisbaden: Limes. Ring of Steel. Germany and Austria-Hungary at war — Ludendorff Soldier: Dictator: Revolutionary. London: Rupert Hart-Davis. Die Tragik Ludendorffs. Eine kritische erinnerung an den general und seine zeit. Berlin: Helmut Rauschenbusch. Virginia Quarterly Review. Wheeler-Bennett Spring Retrieved 28 March Tipton Dying by the Sword. Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 28 November

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You cannot make said Removal Proposal without permission from an admin first. Additional Notice : This template is meant for admin maintenance only. Users who misuse the template will be blocked for a week minimum. Poison's gas on the British capital of London. His brutal belief that war makes men better, and his insatiable lust for destruction, which exceeds even the God of War himself, cause Diana to mistakenly believe that Ludendorff is actually the incarnation of Ares , the God of War, and Diana sets out to eliminate him.

Erich Ludendorff visited a German military base in the Ottoman Empire. Unbeknownst to him, one of his pilots was the American Spy on the British service by the name of Captain Steve Trevor. Trevor soon realized that the Germans were building chemical weapons in the base.

While Ludendorff met with his chief scientist by the name of Dr. Maru , Maru unleashed her newest gas in a chamber where a test subject was located. The subject was affected by the poison gas and but did not die from its effect resulting in Maru pulled the collar string to hang the test subject to death in frustration.

Afterward, Maru had a conversation with Ludendorff in which she begged him for more time to complete her formula. However, she then realized that her notebook had been stolen. Trevor had taken the notebook, so he escaped via plane while Ludendorff and Maru entered a car.

Although Trevor swept back over the camp and attempted to shoot their car, Ludendorff and Maru escaped successfully. Ludendorff next heads to Belgium, where the newest base for Doctor Maru's research is located. There, he is greeted by one of his captains who welcomes him at the camp.

While they are entering the base, Ludendorff asks how long the captain will need to fulfill his mission. When the captain replies that they will need two days, Ludendorff interrupts him and states that he and his men have until tonight.

When the man tries to argue, claiming that his man had neither food nor sleep, Ludendorff coldly replies that he had neither food nor sleep as well and that the captain does not hear him complaining. Ludendorff claims that the captain's men are weak and seem to have forgotten that an attack can take place anytime, from any corner.

To remind them of that fact, Ludendorff shoots the Captain in the head to intimidate the rest of the troop. Ludendorff then enters the base which is the new main base for Doctor Poison. He asks Maru whether she has made any progress but she reveals that it was not enough. Poison also reveals to Ludendorff that the war is over; Germany has given up. Von Hindenburg has recommended that the German emperor signs the armistice and the fighting will be over soon.

Ludendorff claims that the emperor will not sign the armistice if he sees Poison's newest weapon. Although Maru seems to have lost faith since her notebook was stolen, Ludendorff tells her that he believes in her, not her book. Maru then reveals to Ludendorff that she had fabricated an additional gas for Ludendorff himself, which will restore his strength.

Ludendorff inhales the gas, which gives him enhanced strength and endurance. While he is recovering from the shock, Maru suddenly has an idea which might perfect her gas. Ludendorff returns to Germany where he enters a meeting of the German commanders. He is aghast that a peace treaty is to be negotiated but the commanders assure him that it is the wish of the emperor.

Ludendorff claims that with the absolute assistance of the assembled leaders, Germany could easily win the war if they only had a little faith in him. However, the leaders reveal to him that they do not have the required faith in him anymore. The leaders are unwilling to sacrifice any more German lives but Ludendorff argues that only one more attack is required to crush the enemy. When he attempts to reveal to them how Doctor Maru created a new gas weapon, the leaders interrupt him and reveal that they have no faith in him or his witch anymore.

One of the men states that the war will end in twenty-four hours and that it is essentially over. Ludendorff angrily claims that the war is only over for all of them. He then storms out of the room and signals Maru, who is waiting outside. Maru tosses a grenade containing her gas and Ludendorff locks the room - trapping the German High Command inside.

When Maru asks him why he left the High Command one gas mask, claiming that it will not work against the gas, Ludendorff sadistically states that the High Command does not know that. While the members of the High Command gruesomely perished inside the room, Ludendorff inhales another dose of the gas Maru fabricated for him.

After the death of the High Command, Ludendorff and Maru plan to stage a presentation of the efficiency of Maru's gas for the German emperor as to convince him not to end the war. Ludendorff is said to be hosting a gala shortly before the signing of the armistice. Even the German emperor is said to be there and Steve and Diana believe that this will be the best opportunity to take down Ludendorff. Diana also comes to the conclusion that Ludendorff is the human form of Ares , the God of War.

Believing that killing Ares would end the war, Diana is now even more convinced to take down Ludendorff. Steve and Diana infiltrate the castle Ludendorff is hosting his gala at. While Diana is walking through the crowd, searching for "Ares", she sees Ludendorff approaching her.

However, when the music starts playing it is revealed that Ludendorff merely wants to dance with her and while they are dancing, Ludendorff asks whether she is enjoying the party. Diana replies that she is not sure what exactly they are celebrating and Ludendorff tells her that they are celebrating the victory. Diana asks why they are celebrating victory when peace is said to be so close. Ludendorff replies that peace is merely an interval in an everlasting war. When Diana seemingly agrees, Ludendorff claims that this concept is from the ancient Greeks which he noted that the Greeks understood that war is a god, a god who needs sacrifice and that in exchange, war gives men purpose.

Due to this answer referring to the god Ares, Diana is strengthened in her belief that Ludendorff is actually Ares incarnate. She states that only one of the many gods believed in this theory of war and that he was wrong. Affronted, Ludendorff replies that Diana knows nothing of the gods but the two are then interrupted by a German officer who reveals to Ludendorff that the presentation is ready to start.

As Ludendorff turns to leave, he tells Diana to enjoy the fireworks. When Ludendorff's back is turned to Diana, she attempts to draw her hidden sword to strike her down but she is stopped by Steve. Due to Steve's interference, Ludendorff is able to launch the missile carrying Maru's gas.

The missile strikes a nearby village, the one Diana and Steve saved earlier, and kills every inhabitant - most of them civilians. During this time he visited the Russian cities of Saint Petersburg and Moscow in his 3-month special leave and was assigned after his promotion to the General Staff Officer of the 1st Russian department of the General Staff.

In March he was promoted to captain. In Ludendorff, according to his wishes, was transferred to the general staff. In the course of the next few years he also worked on the main features of the Schlieffen Plan, which was drafted in the event of a war with France at that time. He was also a key proponent of the marked by a significant increase and military upgrade plans. During this time the following promotions took place: - promotion to lieutenant colonel - promotion to colonel.

Ludendorff with his colleague Colonel Max Hoffmann, ca. Already on August 22, , however, the transfer of Ludendorff from the West to the Eastern Front took place, as the Russian army invaded East Prussia and Ludendorff was commissioned together with Paul von Hindenburg to stabilize the front and push back the Russians. During this time, Ludendorff and the head of the 2nd Supreme Army Command Erich von Falkenhayn increasingly disputes over the planning of the war.

When the German troops could not achieve a breakthrough in the battles for Verdun, Falkenhayn was deposed and Ludendorff was appointed General of the Infantry and First Quartermaster General and was thus Deputy Hindenburg with whom he formed the 3rd Supreme Command until the end of the war.

Despite his victories at the beginning of the war on the Eastern Front, neither Ludendorff nor Hindenburg succeeded in bringing about a decision on the Western Front. When the spring offensives in also failed to achieve a breakthrough Ludendorff had to realize that the war was no longer to win. After the spring offensives had failed in , the Allies threatened to break through the German Siegfried position, and Bulgaria was already negotiating a ceasefire with the Allies, Ludendorff resigned on September 29, , at a meeting of the Army Command for a cease-fire bid by the US President and Conversion of the monarchy into a parliamentary monarchy in order to be able to carry out a certain damage limitation.

With these steps Ludendorff pursued the postponement of the question of blame for a defeat to the Social Democrats and the revolutionaries and not to leave it to the military. After Maximilian von Baden took over the government in October , Ludendorff put pressure on his own proposals to initiate a capitulation. Ludendorff tried by all means to prevent this and was dismissed as a result of his call to continue the war on 26 October from the service.

After the capitulation of the German Reich Ludendorff returned some time later to the Weimar Republic. There he was active from the beginning in anti-republican and nationalist associations. During this time Ludendorff also got to know Adolf Hitler, of which he held little from the beginning, since Hitler only wore the rank of corporal during the First World War.

From Ludendorff came accordingly also the derogatory term about Hitler, who dubbed him as "Bohemian corporal". In the course of the political instability and radicalization of the political forces of the young Weimar Republic, Ludendorff also participated in the Kapp Putsch of March 13, , which was to bring about the overthrow of the republic by force by Reichswehr members and former soldiers. Over the next few years, the relationship between Ludendorff, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party deteriorated visibly.

Mutual accusations and allegations of contact with Communists and Jews grew louder and louder. After the seizure of power by the National Socialists, the conflict between Hitler and Ludendorff reached its peak when the Ludendorff bookstores were attacked and partially destroyed after critical texts were published. Due to the fame of Ludendorff in connection with the First World War, attacks on him and his wife were prohibited. In the course of the next few years, a certain reconciliation could be brought about when Hitler allowed Ludendorff to re-establish the covenant for the German knowledge of God and to allow it as a religious community.

Erich Ludendorff died on 20 December as a result of liver cancer in the Munich Josephinum Hospital. Contrary to the wishes of Ludendorff and his wife, Hitler had a state act performed on 22 December in Munich for the funeral, when the corpse was buried in the New Cemetery in Tutzing. Tomb of General Erich Ludendorff in Tutzing.

Tannenberg, II. The Battle of the Masurian Lakes, Sketch of the Campaini in North Poland Vn. The Winter Battle in Masuria Vm.

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